Located between 60°55′ and 75°30′ East longitude and 23°45′ and 36°50′ North latitude. It is washed in the south by the Arabian Sea (Indian Ocean). The coast is divided into two sections, of which the western, Makran, accounts for 560 km of the coastline, and the eastern, Sindh, 290 km.
According to allcitycodes, Pakistan borders India to the east, Afghanistan to the northwest and Iran to the west.
In the north, the mighty ridges of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush rise with the highest peak, Tirichmir, 7690 m; to the west are less high mountain ranges belonging to the Hindu Kush system. To the south are the structures of the Iranian Highlands – the Suleiman Mountains, the Salt Range, the Kirthar Mountains.
The main river is the Indus (length 3180 km), as well as its tributaries (from west to east) – Kabul (460 km), Jelam (810 km), Chenab (950 km), Ravi (725 km) and Sutlej (1500 km).
The main plain – Indus, is the western part of the Indo-Gangetic lowland, alluvial, largely plowed. It splits into the north (Punjab plain) and south (Sind lowland).
The soils are mostly brown and grey-brown. Serozems are the main centers of irrigated agriculture. In deserts there are primitive sandy soils, and in mountainous areas there is a complex of soils characteristic of arid conditions.
On the Indus Plain, the natural vegetation is deserted savannahs, along the Indus and other rivers – tree-shrub and reed thickets, along the coast – in places mangrove forests, at an altitude of 1500-3000 m – separate areas of deciduous and coniferous forests.
Animals are represented by Indo-African, Central Asian and Mediterranean species. Large mammals (leopards, Himalayan bears, Persian gazelles, etc.) are preserved in mountain landscapes. The world of birds is quite diverse, there are many types of snakes. The Arabian Sea is rich in fish.
The country is not rich in minerals. Explored reserves are: oil 30 million tons, natural gas 490 billion m3, coal 185 billion tons, iron ore St. 430 million tons, bauxite 74 million tons, rock salt more than 100 million tons. Chromite reserves are quite large, limestone, dolomite, marble, refractory clay and gypsum are very significant.
The climate is mostly tropical, during the hot period the temperature rises to +40-45°C, and in some places exceeds +50°C. Subtropical in the northwest. Most of the precipitation falls during the southwest monsoon (July-September). On the coast, 100-200 mm of precipitation falls annually, in deserts – up to 50 mm, in valleys and on plateaus 250-500 mm, in the mountains 1000-1500 mm.
Population of Pakistan
Population, according to the 1981 census, 84.2 million people, according to the 1998 census – 130.5 million people. The average annual growth is 2.6%. Despite a gradual decrease in rates (to 2.1%, according to an estimate for 2002), the population continues to increase annually by more than 3.5 million people.
Birth rate 30%, death rate 9%, average life expectancy 62 years; infant mortality 90 people. per 1000 newborns.
The sex and age structure is characterized by the predominance of men and the young population. According to the 1998 census, there were 108 men per 100 women (48% of the population are women). Children 0-14 years old – 40% of the population (2000 estimate), youth 15-24 years old – 20%, persons 25-64 years old – 36%, 65 years and older – 4%. The retirement age is 60 years (the share of people of retirement age is 6%).
33% of the inhabitants live in cities (1998 census), half of them live in the 7 largest cities (over 1 million inhabitants each).
The literacy rate is extremely low. Among males and females over 15 years of age, 59% and 30%, respectively, are literate. Among young people aged 15-24, 24% of men and 52% of women are illiterate.
The ethnic composition is complex. The largest ethno-national group are the Punjabis – approx. 60% of the population, Pashtuns – 16%, Sindhis – 12%, Urdu-speaking Muhajirs (immigrants from India due to the partition of 1947 and their descendants) – 8%, Balochi and Brahuis – 4%. The vast majority (97%) speak the main languages of the Indo-European family, while the Punjabi and Sindhi languages belong to the Indo-Aryan (Indian) group, and Pashto and Baluchi belong to the Iranian group. The native language of the rest of the inhabitants is either Dravidian (Bragui) or Dardic (Kho, Sheena, Khovar, etc.).
The vast majority of the population (97%) are Muslims, of which 20% are Shiites. Sunnis belong mainly to the Hanifis (followers of the religious and legal school of Abu Hanifa). Among the Shiites, the Imamis (followers of 12 Imams) are the most numerous. A prominent role in society is played by two Ismaili sects – the Nizari (their spiritual head bears the title of Aga Khan) and the Mustalites. Among religious minorities, the first place is occupied by Christians (Catholics and Protestants of various directions), the second – by Hindus.